Over the last five years, material processing with femtosecond pulses in the range of 300 to 900 fs has gained in popularity. Over the last five years, material processing with femtosecond pulses in the range of 300 to 900 fs has gained in popularity due to the small heat-affected zone (HAZ) and increased energy penetration depth resulting from the high laser pulse intensity. Industrial ultrashort-pulse (USP) diode-pumped solid-state and fiber lasers are now being used to cut foils for flat panel displays, to cut stents, and to drill fuel injector nozzles, as well as for wafer scribing and surface microstructuring. The first industrial use of femtosecond laser pulses for microprocessing dates back to the late 1990s, where titanium sapphire (Ti:sapphire) amplifiers were used to repair lithography masks in integrated circuit fabrication. At that time, the only choice in commercial laser sources were Q-switched, neodymium (Nd)-doped solid-state lasers delivering pulse duration of tens of nanoseconds, and ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifiers that exhibited pulse durations of 100 fs and provided output power at the 1 W level at 1 kHz (FIGURE 1). The small feature size of the chromium lay...